I started my practice in Manhattan, on Central Park South, in 1981. My colleagues and I had friends; they said, "Come out to Staten Island, we need a new high-tech periodontist." Back then there were old time periodontists that would clean and scrape teeth and that didn't do surgical therapy. just cleaning and scraping away gum tissue over and over again. We started doing bone grafts and gum grafts to restore teeth to the way they were. We use grafts from the palate of the patient and synthetic and cadaver gum grafts. We also use freeze-dried bones from human cadavers.